what is Lorem ipsum

publishing and graphic design, lorem ipsum is a placeholder text (filler text) commonly used to demonstrate the graphic elements of a document or visual presentation, such as font, typography, and layout, by removing the distraction of meaningful content. The lorem ipsum text is typically a section of a Latin text by Cicero with words altered, added, and removed that make it nonsensical and not proper Latin.[1]


  • 1 Example text
  • 2 History and discovery
  • 3 English translation
  • 4 Variations
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links

Example text

A common form of lorem ipsum text reads as follows:

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Another version of the text uses the word “adipisici” (rather than “adipisicing“; the digraph ng at the end of words is alien to classical Latin). Other versions of lorem ipsum include additional words to add variety so that repeated verses will not word-wrap on the same phrases.

History and discovery

A variation of the common lorem ipsum text has been used since the 1960s or earlier[1] to provide a filler text during typesetting.

The text is derived from sections 1.10.32–3 of Cicero’s De finibus bonorum et malorum (On the Boundaries of Goods and Evils, or alternatively [About] The Purposes of Good and Evil).[2] The original passage began: Neque porro quisquam est qui dolorem ipsum quia dolor sit amet, consectetur, adipisci velit (translation: “Neither is there anyone who loves pain itself since it is pain and thus wants to obtain it”). It is not known exactly when the text acquired its current standard form; it may have been as late as the 1960s. Richard McClintock, a Latin scholar who was the publications director at Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia, discovered the source of the passage sometime before 1982 while searching for citings of the Latin word “consectetur“, rarely used in classical literature.[1][3] The physical source of the Lorem Ipsum text may be the 1914 Loeb Classical Library Edition of the De Finibus, where the Latin text finishes page 34 with “Neque porro quisquam est qui do-” and begins page 36 with “lorem ipsum (et seq.)…”, suggesting that the galley type of that page was scrambled to make the dummy text seen today. This suggests that “lorem ipsum” may have been used as dummy text before the Letraset transfer sheets popularized it.

The original version (with the excerpted items highlighted) appears in Book 1, sections 32–3:

[32] Sed ut perspiciatis, unde omnis iste natus error sit voluptatem accusantium doloremque laudantium, totam rem aperiam eaque ipsa, quae ab illo inventore veritatis et quasi architecto beatae vitae dicta sunt, explicabo. Nemo enim ipsam voluptatem, quia voluptas sit, aspernatur aut odit aut fugit, sed quia consequuntur magni dolores eos, qui ratione voluptatem sequi nesciunt, neque porro quisquam est, qui dolorem ipsum, quia dolor sit amet, consectetur, adipisci[ng] velit, sed quia non numquam [do] eius modtemporainci[di]dunt, ut labore et dolore magnaaliquam quaerat voluptatem. Ut enim ad minimveniam, quis nostruexercitationem ullam corporis suscipit laboriosam, nisi ut aliquid ex ea commodconsequatur? Quis autem vel eum iure reprehenderit, qui in ea voluptate velit esse, quam nihil molestiae consequatur, vel illum, qui doloremeufugiat, quo voluptas nulla pariatur?
[33] At vero eos et accusamus et iusto odio dignissimos ducimus, qui blanditiis praesentium voluptatum deleniti atque corrupti, quos dolores et quas molestias exceptursint, obcaecatcupiditatnon provident, similique sunt in culpaqui officia deserunt mollitia animi, id est laborum et dolorum fuga. Et harum quidem rerum facilis est et expedita distinctio. Nam libero tempore, cum soluta nobis est eligendi optio, cumque nihil impedit, quo minus id, quod maxime placeat, facere possimus, omnis voluptas assumenda est, omnis dolor repellendus. Temporibus autem quibusdam et aut officiis debitis aut rerum necessitatibus saepe eveniet, ut et voluptates repudiandae sint et molestiae non recusandae. Itaque earum rerum hic tenetur a sapiente delectus, ut aut reiciendis voluptatibus maiores alias consequatur aut perferendis doloribus asperiores repellat…

English translation

H. Rackham’s 1914 translation – in the aforementioned Loeb Classical Library edition – with the major source of lorem ipsum highlighted:

[32] But I must explain to you how all this mistaken idea of denouncing of a pleasure and praising pain was born and I will give you a complete account of the system, and expound the actual teachings of the great explorer of the truth, the master-builder of human happiness. No one rejects, dislikes, or avoids pleasure itself, because it is pleasure, but because those who do not know how to pursue pleasure rationally encounter consequences that are extremely painful. Nor again is there anyone who loves or pursues or desires to obtain pain of itself, because it is pain, but occasionally circumstances occur in which toil and pain can procure him some great pleasure. To take a trivial example, which of us ever undertakes laborious physical exercise, except to obtain some advantage from it? But who has any right to find fault with a man who chooses to enjoy a pleasure that has no annoying consequences, or one who avoids a pain that produces no resultant pleasure? [33] On the other hand, we denounce with righteous indignation and dislike men who are so beguiled and demoralized by the charms of pleasure of the moment, so blinded by desire, that they cannot foresee the pain and trouble that are bound to ensue; and equal blame belongs to those who fail in their duty through weakness of will, which is the same as saying through shrinking from toil and pain. These cases are perfectly simple and easy to distinguish. In a free hour, when our power of choice is untrammeled and when nothing prevents our being able to do what we like best, every pleasure is to be welcomed and every pain avoided. But in certain circumstances and owing to the claims of duty or the obligations of business it will frequently occur that pleasures have to be repudiated and annoyances accepted. The wise man therefore always holds in these matters to this principle of selection: he rejects pleasures to secure other greater pleasures, or else he endures pains to avoid worse pains.


Cicero‘s first Oration against Catiline is sometimes used in type specimensQuo usque tandem abutere, Catilina, patientia nostra? Quam diu etiam furor iste tuus nos eludet?…

Today’s popular version of lorem ipsum was first created for Aldus Corporation’s first desktop publishing program Aldus PageMaker in the mid-1980s for the Apple Macintosh. Art director Laura Perry adapted older forms of the lorem text from typography samples—it was, for example, widely used in Letraset catalogs in the 1960s and 1970s (anecdotes suggest that the original use of the “Lorem ipsum” text was by Letraset, which was used for print layouts by advertising agencies as early as the 1970s). The text was frequently used in PageMaker templates.

Various pieces of software, including text editors (or plug-in modules for same), can generate semi-random “lorem text” that often has little or nothing in common with the canonical variety, other than looking like (and often being) jumbled Latin. Apple’s Pages and Keynote software use this jumbled text as a sample screenplay for their screenplay layout. Lorem ipsum is also featured onJoomla! and WordPress web content managers. Microsoft Office Word 2007, 2010 and 2013 have a Lorem ipsum feature. “Lorem and More” is an extension for inserting “lorem text” into web pages in Adobe Dreamweaver.[5]

  • Li Europan lingues
  • List of Latin phrases
  • Metasyntactic variable
  • The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog


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